Heart attack risks up for middle-age smoker

This article provides an opportunity to interpret meaning in mathematical terms. From the first paragraph it is possible to frame a conditional probability statement of the type:

Pr(heart attack|smoker) = 5 x Pr(heart attack|non-smoker)

In the fourth paragraph for developed countries it is possible to write the following conditional probability statement:

Pr(smoker|heart attack) >.5.

Finally in terms of explaining relationships students could be asked to draw a graph to indicate the association claimed in the last paragraph. It should look similar to this.

Where to next?

Student Questions for this article
Newspaper article
Index - Related articles
Index - Chance and Basic Probability
Main Index - Numeracy in the News